KADMOS 2020-08-10T11:07:19+00:00 Elene Tatishvili Open Journal Systems <p>Kadmos is a peer-reviewed multi-disciplinary academic journal, published by Ilia State University (Tbilisi), which aims to challenge, provoke and excite thinking in the areas of the classics, literature and orature, linguistics, philosophy, cultural anthropology (ethnography, ethnology and mythology) and history (archeology). The journal appears annually and is sponsored by the Ilia State University. The editors welcome original contributions in the form of articles, reviews, notes from scholars in the humanities that will promote and foster its aims. The Journal’s Polemics section is intended to enhance debate between authors and the wider community. Polemics pieces can be mainly considered as responses to a published article, a shorter research note or report, or a commentary on research issues or professional practices. The Journal also contains a Reviews section.</p> <p>By signing a license agreement with EBCO Publishing Inc. on 28 June 2012, <em>Kadmos</em>, was included in the <a title="EBSCO" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EBSCO</a> Publishing databases.</p> <p>The journal seeks to achieve the following objectives:</p> <ul> <li class="show">To promote inter-disciplinary research in all areas of the humanities.</li> <li class="show">To assist researchers at the pre-and post-doctorate levels, with a wealth of new and original material.</li> <li class="show">To make ideas, topics, and processes in the humanities accessible to the interested public.</li> </ul> <p>All research articles published in Research Section of the journal have undergone double-blind peer review, based on initial editor screening and anonymized refereeing by at least two anonymous referees. Where a call for papers is issued for Special Issues, submissions passed for review by the Issue Editor are subject to the same double-blind review process as submissions to Research Section.</p> <p>All papers are expected to be original contributions and not previously published nor currently under consideration for publication elsewhere. The reviewing lasts at least 4 weeks and the final approval or rejection will be send to authors by the end of October.</p> <p>Papers should be 10 to 21 type written pages in English or Georgian, including endnotes (see <a title="For Authors" href="/index.php/kadmos/information/authors" target="_self">For Authors</a>)</p> <p>For more information please contact Scientific Secretary of the Journal, Elene Tatishvili at <a title="" href="/index.php/kadmos/manager/setup/"></a>.</p> <p><strong>Editor</strong>: Nino Doborjginidze</p> <p><strong>Advisory Board</strong></p> <p>Nino Abakelia (Georgia)</p> <p>Shukia Apridonidze (Georgia)</p> <p>Winfried Boeder (Germany)</p> <p>Nino Chichinadze (Georgia)</p> <p>Zurab Kiknadze (Georgia)</p> <p>Jost Gippert (Germany)</p> <p>Guram Kipiani (Georgia)</p> <p>Luigi Magarotto (Italy)</p> <p>Donald Rayfield (United Kingdom)</p> The Meaning of a Literary Text as a Mental Construct and as an Event in Literary Communication 2020-08-10T10:19:26+00:00 Nino Tevdoradze <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The present article is an attempt to synthesize the existing interdisciplinary knowledge on the concept of literary meaning, to argue for an alternative conception of textual meaning, and to analyze the meaning of a literary text in view of the “cluster conception” – an alternative conception about the nature of text and textual meaning – introduced by Anders Pettersson. Accordingly, the meaning of a literary text is considered as a mental construct comprised of author’s meaning, readers’ meanings and commentators’ meanings. It discusses the author’s and the reader’s involvement in a dynamic communication as a process in which meaning is not identified, as is generally conceived, but construed through experiencing and interpreting a complex of signs.&nbsp; This article argues that since “cluster conception” refers to verbal communication in general, it can offer a new perspective to focus on the specific nature of meaning-making in literary communication. It stresses the importance of describing the reader’s cognitive and emotive response to the &nbsp;“otherness” and&nbsp; singularity of a literary work, explicated by Derek Attridge, not as property of the latter,&nbsp; but as an event taking place in reception.</p> 2020-08-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Ideologizing Space in Georgian Literature: Religious and National Contexts of the “Northern Country” 2020-08-10T10:20:04+00:00 Tsira Kilanava <p>This article studies the spatial lexical item “Northern Country” that seemingly acquired an ideological character in historically crucial periods of the Georgian monarchy, that is, the 4<sup>th</sup> and 19<sup>th</sup> centuries.&nbsp; It attempts to overview&nbsp; the semanticization&nbsp; process&nbsp; of the concept&nbsp; “Northern Country” through&nbsp; analysis of historical literary works&nbsp; depicting the Christianization of Georgia&nbsp; on the one hand, and 19<sup>th</sup> century colonial period Georgian poetry on the other, as well as define literary strategies that furnished the spatial marker with national stereotypical meaning. The research is based on the theoretical foundations of the study of national self-imagery. In the given context, literature represents a medium of public awareness.</p> 2020-08-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Conceptualizing the Liturgical Music of Evangelical Baptists in Tbilisi: Experimentation and Compilation 2020-08-10T11:06:30+00:00 Nino Naneishvili <p>This presentation examines the liturgical music practices of the Evangelical Baptist Church in Tbilisi (Georgia). Though predominantly ethnic Georgians, the Baptists are a moderate voice for gender equality, religious pluralism, and minority rights, and are sometimes criticized by conservative or nationalistic Orthodox Georgians as a result.</p> <p>My research has encompassed observation during religious services, in-depth interviews, a comparative approach, complex analysis, and intonational analysis. The liturgical music of the Tbilisi Baptists differs considerably from that of Evangelical Baptist churches in other parts of Georgia or other countries. This comes partially as a result of the ideology of this relatively new religious stream, which, in order to facilitate the adaptation of the inexperienced congregation, allows services to be based on national, traditional features. The liturgy, music, and acts of divine service are based on principles established by Archbishop Malkhaz Songulashvili, including the principles of ecumenical “openness” and the synthesis of traditional Georgian values.</p> <p>The music heard in the Georgian-speaking Evangelical Baptist Church today includes the following: Georgian Orthodox chants; chants composed by the present Georgian Orthodox Patriarch, Ilia II; chants from the Taizé Monastery; other foreign repertoires translated into Georgian; Georgian professional music, and experimental electro-acoustic music. The liturgical music of the Evangelical Baptists in Tbilisi is mixed, experimental, and in the process of compilation, and has not yet reached a finalized form.</p> 2020-08-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Jost Gippert’s “Georgische Handschrifte” (or which fonts and text applications Iovane Zosime used) 2020-08-10T10:22:21+00:00 Zakharia Pourtskhvanidze <p>Georgische Handschriften, Gippert Jost in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Nationalen Korneli-Kekelidze-Handschriftenzentrum Georgiens und unter Mitwirkung von Zurab Tchumburidze und Elene Machavariani, Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden, 2018, ISBN: 798-3-95490-322-1, 172 pp.</p> 2020-08-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Response to Article “The First Georgian Advertisement” Emil Avdaliani's 2020-08-10T10:22:03+00:00 Konstantine Baramia <p>The history of advertising in Georgia has attracted increasing interest from researchers. In 2018, a historian, Emil Avdaliani (PhD) published an article “The First Georgian Advertisement” in Tbilisi State Univesity Papers in the History of Georgia, vol. XIII. As the question so far remains understudied, each paper devoted to it deserves close attention. This review aims to respond<br>critically to Avdaliani’s article and discuss a number of viewpoints expressed in it. A close study of the article revealed frequent factual errors, low awareness of the points discussed and lack of necessary citations.</p> 2020-08-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Avgia Church Site 2020-08-10T10:18:08+00:00 Shota Mamuladze Guram Kipiani Kakhaber Kamadadze <p>Remains of an early medieval church were discovered on the homestead plot of a local resident in the Avgia district (Avgia street #50) near Batumi. The archeological survey revealed a large basilica to be dated to an early Byzantine period according to the building technique, planning, and archaeological materials. The church was built on the Latin cross plan (crux immissa) and had a transept hall and a narthex. Churches with a transept were widespread in the Byzantine Empire, including its peripheries, and were mostly, of two types: domed and domeless. The Avgia church is a domeless cross-shaped basilica.<br>The church walls are made of rubble, unprocessed stones and lime mortar. The rows are regular. The key areas are well bound and fortified by sandstone quadras. The horseshoe-shaped apse masonry is of a different type – opus quadratum composed of relatively small square stones. The flooring is made of lime mortar.</p> <p>The architectonics of the building is entirely based on the Roman foot. The architecture analysis, as well as the parallel materials, allows us to date the church to the 5th/6th century, which corresponds to the dating of archeological finds disrecovered at the site.</p> 2020-08-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Who is BACVRA Mentioned in British Epigraphic Sources? 2020-08-10T10:22:42+00:00 Nikoloz Nikolozishvili <p>The surviving information about Bacurius the Iberian, an important Georgian figure known to historiography from late antique Greco-Roman sources, is valuable but fragmentary. The main goal of this article is to reconstruct, based on British epigraphic sources, a certain period from Bacurius’ life (368-378 AD) and his connections with the Roman military and political elite of that time.</p> <p>BACVRA should be a diminutive of Georgian ‘Bacur’. ‘-a’ is one of the most common diminutives suffixes both in old and modern Georgian. The author of this article believes that these inscriptions should belong to Bacurius the Iberian, a contemporary of the emperors Valens and Theodosius the Great, who appears in Greco-Roman sources between 368 and 394 as a high-ranking Roman military officer.</p> 2020-08-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Lexicographical Concept of Georgian Dialect Corpus 2020-08-10T10:45:26+00:00 Marine Beridze David Nadaraia <p>The idea of creating a lexicographic base of the Georgian dialect corpus was formed within the Project “Linguistic Portrait of Georgia”, which was aiming at documenting Kartvelian linguistic diversity and developing corpus<br>query tools. According to the research goals of the project, two important Georgian corpora were created. They are Georgian dialect corpus (( and Georgian Metalanguage Corpus (</p> 2020-08-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Survey of Studies on Nationalism with a Particular View on Religion1 2020-08-10T10:44:51+00:00 Tamar Grdzelidze <p>Nationalism is a very broad subject, and the semantics related to it are very rich too. Numerous theories and studies on nationalism always have something interesting to offer to studies on religion. This brief survey on nationalism reveals the changing patterns by which scholars try to define it anew, although with no intention of giving a comprehensive interpretation or rejecting previous findings altogether. Studies on nationalism prove that it has many facets and that its conflicting perspectives may not be mutually exclusive.</p> 2020-08-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Corpus-Based Georgian Dictionaries 2020-08-10T10:44:20+00:00 Maka Tetradze <p>The paper discusses those recently published Georgian dictionaries which thatare entirely corpus-based. They were compiled within the project “Saba” specially for the Frankfurt Book Fair 2018. The concept of the dictionaries<br>was developed at the State Language Department under Marina Beridze’s supervision. The development involved several language experts from the Department as well as from TSU Arnold Chikobava Institute of Linguistics.</p> 2020-08-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) “South Caucasian Chalk Circle 2” 2020-08-10T10:43:30+00:00 Maria Polinsky Léa Nash Nino Doborjginidze <p>From 3 through 14 September, the Ilia State University (Tbilisi, Georgia) hosted an international conference and a summer school “South Caucasian Chalk Circle 2” (SCCC-2), co-organized by Maria Polinsky (University of&nbsp;<br>Maryland), Léa Nash (CNRS/Paris University 8) and Nino Doborjginidze (Ilia State University, Tbilisi). Both events were a follow-up of a conference and a four-day workshop with the same name (SCCC-1) held in Paris in September 2016.</p> 2020-08-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Ilia’s Library: A New Perspective in the Study of Ilia Chavchavadze’s Legacy 2020-08-10T10:42:10+00:00 Sergo Ratiani <p>Ilia Chavchavadze is credited with starting the nationalist discourse and the tradition of liberalism in Georgia. He also was among the first to confront socialism and the socialists. However, the origins of his ideas and consequently, their philosophical, socio-political and economic footing remain understudied, being limited to a handful of works. The same is true about the place and role of the tradition of liberalism Georgia was exposed to in Chavchavadze’s times.</p> 2020-08-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) “Victorious Niko” by Ekateriné Gabashvili: Utopia in the Georgian Village 2020-08-10T10:48:54+00:00 Merab Ghaghanidze <p>The story “Victorious Niko”, written in 1896 by the Georgian writer Ekateriné Gabashvili (1851-1938), ends with the epilogue, in which Iason, one of the characters of the story, is writing a letter to his mother. Here he describes a community, where justice and equality have been established, discovered by him in the Georgian village of the Eastern region of Georgia. The community, in which the peasants’ life is founded on the collective property and the collaborative work, is led by the Orthodox priest Niko and his wife Liza, who also works there as a teacher. The material foundation of the community was the property, inherited by Liza from her grandfather by his own will. The priest has lost the personal faith and his religious feelings are replaced by ethics of serving the people.</p> <p>Ekateriné Gabashvili’s ideas, while describing the life in the village, are based on the ideological movement, which was originated in Russia in the 1870s and was named as “Narodniki”, i.e. “populists”, but this ideology soon came to Georgia, where the followers of the movement were called as “Khalkhosnebi”. The article also shows that the Georgian utopian village, described in the story, is based not only on the ideas of the “Narodniks” (or “Khalkhosnebi”), but also upon the own experience of the writer, who had opened a small factory<br>in her own house, where poor girls studied and worked.<br>There is evidence that the story was influenced by “What Is to Be Done?”, a novel by Nikolay Chernyshevsky, but sometimes Gabashvili does not agree with the opinions expressed in the novel, which was so important for the public life in Russia as well as in Georgia – for “Narodniks” or for “Khalkhosnebi”.<br>At the end of the story the writer declares the great importance of personal experience for the spiritual transformation of a person – either man or woman.</p> 2020-08-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Le témoignage de Georges l’Hagiorite sur l’origine du “Barlaam” grec 2020-08-10T10:59:19+00:00 Gérard Garitte † Tsisana Bibileishvili <p>დებატები „ბალავარისა და იოდასაფის“ ბერძნული რედაქციის ავტორის ვინაობაზე (BHG3 224) თითქოსდა დასრულდა პ. პეეტერსის სტატიის „ბალავარისა და იოდასაფის პირველი ლათინური ვერსიისა და მისი ბერძნული დედნის შესახებ“1 გამოქვეყნების შემდეგ; ხუთი წლის წინ დებატები მოულოდნელად განახლდა ფ. დოელგერის გამოკვლევის Dergriechische Barhlaam-Roman, ein Werk des h. Iohanes von Damaskos პუბლიკაციით</p> 2020-08-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) La littérature géorgienne et l’histoire culturelle du moyen age 2020-08-10T10:57:41+00:00 Gérard Garitte † Tsisana Bibileishvili <p>მსურს ამთავითვე მოგახსენოთ: ჩემი მიზანი არაა წარმოგიდგინოთ ვრცელი მოხსენება, რომელიც ახლახან მოსმენილი ორი ბრწყინვალე გამოსვლის შემდეგ უფერული გამოჩნდებოდა. მსურს მხოლოდ, არ დავარღვიო ჩვენი სხდომის დღის წესრიგი, რომელშიც სპარსეთთან ერთად სომხეთი და საქართველოც ფიგურირებენ და რამდენიმე წამით თქვენი ყურადღება ქრისტიანულ აღმოსავლეთზე შევაჩერო. ვგულისხმობ ადრე შუა საუკუნეების არაბიზანტიურ ქრისტიანულ აღმოსავლეთს, ასე ვთქვათ, პერიოდს ჯვაროსანთა ლაშქრობამდე. დარწმუნებული ვარ, არავინ უსაყვედურებს ქრისტიანულ აღმოსავლეთს, რომ იყენებს უდავოდ კუთვნილ უფლებას და ჩვენი კონგრესის ყურადღების ცენტრში ექცევა (ტაში).</p> 2020-08-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)