Noblemen became enthroned
This paper is an attempt to clarify the typological essence of the Georgian state at the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries. Ivane Javakhishvili believed that it was appropriate to describe the Georgian state of those times as a limited monarchy. Others (Professors S. Meskhia, I. Antelava, ...) did not share this opinion. They argued that autocracy was better matched to the kingdom of Queen Tamar's times. Primary sources and the analysis of scholars’ opinions have convinced us that Javakhishvili was right, although the system of power of any country cannot be fully placed within the frames of a specific stereotype of classification. The Georgian state of Queen Tamar's times can be classified as a limited monarchy, oligarchy, or timocracy, the choice depending on the emphasis placed. Despite the conflicts that took place in Georgian society at that time, Queen Tamar managed to direct all political forces into one millrace and achieve accord (unanimity) between elite groups. Her domestic policy can be assessed as an “act of sovereignty” of noblemen, members of landed gentry, clergymen, merchants, and craftsmen. “What, then, strictly speaking, is an act of Sovereignty? It is not a convention between a superior and an inferior, but a convention between the body and each of its members. It is legitimate, because [it is] based on the social contract, and equitable, because [it is] common to all; useful, because it can have no other object than the general good” (Rousseau 2017, 24).